Rasisme dan Xenofobia pada Masa Pandemi Covid-19 Sebagai Bentuk Ketidak-Adilan Sosial di Amerika Serikat

Aditya Romadhon, Margaretha Hanita


Racism and Xenophobia are several forms of action that represent injustice to ethnicities and races. However, although it is clear that this action is a form of social injustice, racism and xenophobia still occur frequently. During the Covid-19 pandemi, the United States of America (USA) also experienced an unstable condition where the situation heated up due to racist and xenophobic actions called “Asian-Hate” as a form of social injustice where Asian-Americans never even came or went to the area where the virus spread. Blamed and treated arbitrarily and inhumanely and this condition was exacerbated by President Trump's statements. This study aimed to explore how the social condition of society towards social injustice were being manifested in racism and xenophobia. This research uses a methodology in the form of literature study by collecting data from various relevant articles and documents. The results of the study showed that during the Covid-19 pandemic, America was proven to have carried out very intense racist and xenophobic acts with a variety of varied actions. Racist treatment was more widely accepted by the Asian race, especially the Asian-American group, which is "sealed" as the race that causes and spreads the Covid-19 virus.


Social Injustice; Racism; Xenophobia: Asian-hate

Full Text:




Ishaq, Metode Penelitian Hukum, Bandung : Alfabeta, 2017

Mertokusumo, Sudikno, Mengenal Hukum : Sebuah Pengantar, Yogyakarta : Liberty, 2008 Rahardjo, Satjipto, Ilmu Hukum, Bandung : PT. Citra Aditya Bakti, 2000

Sudarto, Hukum Dan Hukum Pidana, Bandung: Alumni, 1977

Sukandarrumidi, Metodologi Penelitian: Petunjuk Praktis untuk Peneliti Pemula, Yogyakarta : Gajah Mada University Press, 2006


Abadi, M., & Muthohirin, N. (2020). Metode cultural Responsive Teaching Dalam Pendidikan Agama Islam: STUDI Kasus Tindak xenophobia dan Rasisme di TENGAH Bencana Covid-19. Progresiva : Jurnal Pemikiran Dan Pendidikan Islam, 9(1), 34. doi:10.22219/progresiva.v9i1.12520

Ajilore, O., & Thames, A. D. (2020). The fire this time: The stress of racism, inflammation and Covid-19. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 88, 66-67. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2020.06.003

Anandhini, F.N. (2021). Peran United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) dalam Menangani Diskriminasi Terhadap Zainichi Koreans di Jepang. Padjadjaran Journal of International Relations Vol 3, No 1. DOI : https://doi.org/10.24198/padjir.v3i1.30694

Baptiste, D. L., Commodore-Mensah, Y., Alexander, K. A., Jacques, K., Wilson, P. R., Akomah, J., Sharps, P., & Cooper, L. A. (2020). COVID-19: Shedding light on racial and health inequities in the USA. Journal of clinical nursing, 29(15-16), 2734–2736. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.15351

Benjamin, E. (2020). Trump, the Coronavirus Pandemi, Asian American xenophobia, and Humanistic Psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 61(2), 244-259. doi:10.1177/0022167820979650

Bernasconi, Robert. (2014). Where is xenophobia in the fight against racism? Critical Philosophy of Race, 2(1), 5. doi:10.5325/critphilrace.2.1.0005

Borja, M. J. (2020). Anti-Chinese Rhetoric Tied to Racism against Asian Americans Stop AAPI Hate Report. June

Chan, C., & Montt Strabucchi, M. (2020). Many-faced orientalism: Racism and xenophobia in a time of the novel coronavirus in Chile. Asian Ethnicity, 22(2), 374-394. doi:10.1080/14631369.2020.1795618

Crush, J., & Ramachandran, S. (2010). Xenophobia, international migration and development. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, 11(2), 209-228. doi:10.1080/19452821003677327

Eichelberger, Laura. (2007). “SARS and New York’s Chinatown: The Politics of Risk and Blame during an Epidemic of Fear,” Social Science & Medicine 65, no. 6: 1284–95, https://doi.org/10.1016/j. socscimed.2007.04.022.

Fernando, S. (1993). Racism and xenophobia. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 6(1), 9-19. doi:10.1080/13511610.1993.9968330

Gover, A. R., Harper, S. B., & Langton, L. (2020). Anti-Asian hate crime during the COVID-19 pandemi: Exploring the reproduction of inequality. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 45(4), 647-667. doi:10.1007/s12103-020-09545-1

Gruer, L., Agyemang, C., Bhopal, R., Chiarenza, A., Krasnik, A., & Kumar, B. (2021). Migration, ethnicity, racism and the Covid-19 pandemi: A Conference marking the launch of a new global society. Public Health in Practice, 2, 100088. doi:10.1016/j.puhip.2021.100088

Harcourt, W. (2009). Editorial: Racism, xenophobia and development. Development, 52(4), 441-444. doi:10.1057/dev.2009.79

Ho, J. (2020). Anti-Asian racism, Black lives matter, and COVID-19. Japan Forum, 33(1), 148-159. doi:10.1080/09555803.2020.1821749

Hwang, Y. (2020). Anti-Asian racism During Covid-19. AEA Randomized Controlled Trials. doi:10.1257/rct.6365

Kartasapoetra, G; Hartini. (2007). Kamus sosiologi dan kependudukan / G. Kartasapoetra, Hartini. Jakarta :: Bumi Aksara)

Kim, A. T., Kim, C., Tuttle, S. E., & Zhang, Y. (2021). COVID-19 and the decline in Asian American employment. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 71, 100563. doi:10.1016/j.rssm.2020.100563

La Rovere, Roberto. Hassan, A.A. (2012). Targeting Research for Enhanced Impact on Poverty in Marginal Areas:The Representative Case of the Dry Areas of Syria. Australia : International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference.

Lee, J. (2021). Asian Americans, affirmative Action & the rise In ANTI-ASIAN HATE. Daedalus, 150(2), 180-198. doi:10.1162/daed_a_01854

Meydianto, M. Y. (2020) “Konstruksi Media Online Mengenai Pemberitaan Blame Game Terkait Asal Mula Munculnya Virus Corona Analisis Framing Pada Newyorktimes.Com Dan Xinhua.Com,” Jurnal Studi Jurnalistik 2, no. 2. https://doi.org/10.15408/jsj.v2i2.16322.

Nainggolan, Elizabeth. et al. (2021). Gerakan Stop AAPI Hate: Reaksi Framing Media Amerika Serikat Terhadap Asian-American Pacific Islanders (AAPI) Hate. Retorik. Vol.9(2). doi.org/10.24071/ret.v9i2.3644

Oki Rahadianto, S. (2017). Rasisme dan Marginalisasi dalam Sejarah Sosiologi Amerika. MASYARAKAT: Jurnal Sosiologi, 21(2). doi:10.7454/mjs.v21i2.5970

Pan, S. W., Shen, G. C., Liu, C., & Hsi, J. H. (2020). Coronavirus stigmatization and psychological distress among Asians in the United States. Ethnicity & Health, 26(1), 110-125. doi:10.1080/13557858.2020.1849570

Phiri, Peter. et al. (2021) COVID-19 and Black, Asian, and Minority Ethnic Communities: A Complex Relationship Without Just Cause. JMIR Public Health and Surveillance. doi: 10.2196 / 22581

Pratama, Rifka. (2021). Imigran dan Warga Keturunan Jepang di Amerika Serikat: Sentimen-Sentimen Terhadapnya Dulu dan Kini. Kiryoku: Jurnal Studi Kejepangan, Volume 5 No 1. e-ISSN:2581-0960p-ISSN: 2599-0497

Tessler, H., Choi, M., & Kao, G. (2020). The anxiety of being Asian american: Hate crimes and negative biases during the Covid-19 pandemi. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 45(4), 636-646. doi:10.1007/s12103-020-09541-5

Yellow Horse, A. J. (2021). Anti-Asian racism, xenophobia and Asian American health During Covid-19. The COVID-19 Crisis, 195-206. doi:10.4324/9781003111344-21


Nextshark. 2020. Three Teens Arrested Minnesota Kicking Asian Women. https://nextshark.com/three-teens-arrested-minnesota-kicking-asian-woman

Kejahatan kebencian terhadap keturunan Asia di Amerika Serikat meningkat. BBC News Indonesia. (2021), https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/dunia-56249817

Stabbing Of Asian American 2 Year Old And Her Family Was A Coronavirus Fueled Hate Crim Feds Say. The Daily Beast. (2020) https://www.thedailybeast.com/stabbing-of-asian-american-2-year-old-and-her-family-was-a-coronavirus-fueled-hate-crime-feds-say

Chinese Corona Virus Racist Attacks. The New York Times. (2020). https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/23/us/chinese-coronavirus-racist-attacks.html

Teens Minnesota Kicking Asian American Woman. The Buzzfeed News. (2020). https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/briannasacks/teens-minnesota-kicking-asian-american-woman

The Newyorker. 2020. Confronting Anti Asian Discrimination during The Corona Virus Crisis. https://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/confronting-anti-asian-discrimination-during-the-coronavirus-crisis

The Washington Post. 2020. Trumps Chinese Virus Slur Makes People Some Blame Chinese Americans Others Blame Trump. https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2020/09/16/trumps-chinese-virus-slur-makes-some-people-blame-chinese-americans-others-blame-trump/

University of California San Fransisco, 2021. Trumps Chinese Virus Tweet Linked Rise-Anti Asian Hashtags Twitter https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2021/03/420081/trumps-chinese-virus-tweet-linked-rise-anti-asian-hashtags-twitter

ABCNews. 2021. Asian-American Population Standing Up To Hate Crimes https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-05-06/asian-american-population-standing-up-to-hate-crimes/100084342)

Reuters. 2021. Healthcare Pharmaceuticals: Key-Moments Covid-19 Pandemic /https://www.reuters.com/business/healthcare-pharmaceuticals/key-moments-covid-19-pandemic-2021-12-20/)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33087/wjh.v7i1.1143


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Wajah Hukum Published by Faculty of Law, Batanghari University
Adress: Fakultas Hukum, Jl.Slamet Ryadi, Broni-Jambi, Kec.Telanaipura, Kodepos: 36122, email: wajahhukum.unbari@gmail.com

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.